🇲🇽 CONFÍA y SOPORTA / 🇺🇸 TRUST and ENDURE

OTÓN MARCIO

Al menos en la humillación histórica, hay un lugar reservado para los que “esperan lo mejor”, para los que engullen sin preguntar, para los crédulos. El mundo no cambia; las tendencias históricas –sin importar nombre– no existen; la confianza política es costosa.

At least in historic humiliation, there is a place reserved for those “waiting for the best”, those who swallow and do not question, the credulous. The world does not change; historical tendencies–whatever their name might be–do not exist; political trust is costly. … More 🇲🇽 CONFÍA y SOPORTA / 🇺🇸 TRUST and ENDURE

VICTIMIZATION IN THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT: Operation Protective Edge

LUIS RODRIGO CARBAJAL NOGUÉS

For centuries, humans have been using language to give a meaning to their actions. They have been trying to justify what they are doing in several ways. That is why everything must have a meaning, even the simplest or dumbest action has a reason and represents something. Meanings and justifications are as important as the actions that are being done.

If states and governments are seen as a unity, we could define them as players. They have their own preferences, rationality and behaviour. They will try to achieve their goals and have influence on the society, the world. From this perspective, we can argue that they will also try to assign meaning to their actions. By analyzing how they use language for that purpose, we try to know which are the states’ preferences, beliefs, and ideas to know more about how they behave.

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TO PEACE THROUGH WAR: Machiavelli and the Survival of the State

RICARDO JASSO HUEZO

Key to approach Machiavelli is to understand his conception of man. “[…] [M]en are wretched creatures […]. […] [S]o simple, and so much creatures of circumstance […].” “[…] All men are evil and they will always act according to the wickedness of their nature whenever they have the opportunity.” Therefore, in view of such an inevitable, permanent factor, he who deals with the task of ordering a group of men has to work with this raw material of imperfection. The way to model it is by means of power and deception, by forcing this rational, selfish being to act according to the desires of its ruler. … More TO PEACE THROUGH WAR: Machiavelli and the Survival of the State

WHAT IS BEYOND NUCLEAR EQUILIBRIUM? Politics of Conflict between India and Pakistan

RICARDO JASSO HUEZO

It is well known by international political theorists that the political units called “States” live in an anarchical system. In this world without general authority, the best ally one can have is oneself. As a British politician —Lord Palmerston— once said, “We have no permanent allies nor permanent enemies […]. Our interests are eternal and our duty is to serve these interests.” International politics is what Morgenthau called “the struggle for power” —that is for dominance. Every unit in the system seeks to achieve two major goals: survival and preeminence. Bringing all these characteristics together results in the main pattern of political life in the international system: namely, the balance of power. … More WHAT IS BEYOND NUCLEAR EQUILIBRIUM? Politics of Conflict between India and Pakistan